What is Aidma Theory


Introduction to Aidma Theory

Aidma Theory is a marketing theory developed by real-estate and marketing professor, Dr. Sameer Gupta. It explains how marketers can use attitude and behavior to their advantage when evaluating customers and devising strategies. Aidma Theory claims that attitude and behavior are the two most important factors that determine the success of a marketing strategy.

In this article, we will explore what Aidma Theory is and how it can be used to improve marketing efforts.

Definition of Aidma Theory

Aidma Theory is a comprehensive marketing strategy created by Professor V.K. Narayanan that encompasses all of the five Ps of marketing (product, price, place, promotion and people) plus two new “Ps”— information and access. It is based on the concept of “wide neuromarketing” which suggests that customers need all the relevant information about a product, its features and its benefits at every stage transacting — research, purchase and consumption — hence creating an omni-channel customer experience. This combination helps organizations in creating more effective campaigns and achieving better conversion rates for their brands.

The complete Aidma cycle consists of:

  • Awareness: Building awareness about the product/brand with an aim to attract potential customers;
  • Interest: Making potential customers interested in the product/brand;
  • Desire: Creating a desire among customers to buy the product or avail the service;
  • Action: Encouraging potential customer to take action and purchase the product/service through different marketing strategies like discounts & offers;
  • Redemption: Providing various tools like point system or loyalty cards to help facilitate customer redemption further pushing them to engage with product further. This process enables businesses & organizations to have a better understanding of their customer behaviour & preferences which helps in developing more personalized campaigns & curating experiences uniquely for them.

History of Aidma Theory

Aidma theory is a marketing concept that was first proposed by Shoji Shiba and Takashi Harada in the late 1970s. Its focus is on consumers’ perceptions over time, rather than focusing purely on information provided to the consumer at a particular point of sale or service. The theory suggests that marketing strategies should be based on collective knowledge and memory of what happened before, as well as current events and activities.

The term Aidma is an acronym for the six factors of influence that form the foundation of this approach: Awareness, Image, Distribution, Merchandising, Advertising, and Promotion. The underlying idea behind Aidma theory is that marketing should not be viewed from only one angle (or factor) – but rather from all six to create an overall effective strategy.

Aidma outlines how businesses should measure variables influencing consumer perception about product images such as awareness level at different points in the purchase decision process. It also refers to a technique where it suggests creating trust in buyers by motivating them to buy with stimuli such as appealing prices or through advertising campaigns tailored to individual needs.

The purpose of implementing Aidma is twofold: introducing new products into existing channels/marketplaces while increasing brand awareness/consumer interest simultaneously – ultimately leading to higher sales volumes and market share growth over time. Ultimately, Aidma provides companies with an effective tool for managing customer responses over time while creating a lasting impression among buyers with each successive phase of their marketing strategy implementation progress plan.

Components of Aidma Theory

Aidma is a comprehensive marketing theory that stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, Memory, and Action. It is a useful tool for marketers to understand how to guide customers from becoming aware of a product or service to making a purchase decision. The five components of Aidma are important for understanding how customers make purchasing decisions and how to craft effective strategies to reach them.

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at each of these components and how to use them to craft successful marketing plans:

  • Attention: How to capture the attention of potential customers.
  • Interest: How to keep customers interested in the product or service.
  • Desire: How to create a desire for the product or service.
  • Memory: How to create a memorable experience for customers.
  • Action: How to motivate customers to take action and purchase.


Awareness, one of the components of Aidma theory, is the conscious knowledge that a product exists and can bring satisfaction to the consumer. This component involves knowing what solution or process is available to address an issue or meet a need. A business must therefore first create awareness about its products for its target market before it can influence their purchase decisions.

Knowing potential customers’ needs and desires and producing content with this understanding in mind, makes your brand more relevant to them. Enhancing your visibility on multiple channels ensure that customers make their choices easily through access to information about you and your product.

There are various means for creating awareness such as:

  • Print media
  • Electronic media
  • Word of mouth
  • Signage

Despite the increasing use of digital platforms for marketing activities, traditional offline methods such as word-of-mouth still remain key elements in rising awareness levels among consumers. Acquiring online visibility through SEO techniques helps businesses sustain higher levels of long-term awareness amongst potential customers as well as existing ones.


Interest is an important pillar of the AIDMA theory. According to this theory, marketeers should be able to identify target groups (Awareness) and use the reactive behaviour and knowledge of the target group (Interest) to build a comprehensive understanding of the content and manner of communication that should be used when interacting with users.

Interest plays a crucial role in user engagement as it enables marketers to determine which product or service appeals to the users’ temperament, attitude and interests. Brand marketers can take advantage of interest in two ways: by appealing to users’ interests or developing new products or services based on user feedback.

Interest also allows marketeers to develop effective messaging strategies that target core audiences within specific interest segments, as well as customize content for different user needs.


Desire, according to Aidma theory, is the first component of a consumer’s decision making process. A consumer’s desire to purchase a product or service begins before they even begin to understand what it is. This desire is created through various marketing techniques and will vary depending on the product or service. Once the consumer sees an ad or promotional material that piques their interest, they will begin to research the product in order to gain a better understanding of its features and benefits. This leads them to the second component of Aidma, which is awareness.


Memory is a key component of the AIDMA model, which states that advertisement messages are stored in long-term memory when they catalyze attitude formation and change, rather than just being processed through short-term perception. Experiences with a brand over time build associations and expectations in long-term memory which guide decision makers’ cognitive evaluations of clues, exposing them to more positive or negative brand stimulus. The frequency of the stimulus determines its presence within consumers’ minds, where it can later be associated with prior brand experience and then consolidated into memory.

Memory further helps people remember (i.e., retrieve) cues about brands so that relevant information may be evaluated cognitively prior to making decisions at point of purchase. Thus, any advertising and marketing activity working toward fostering customer engagement should be structured to effectively capture consumer attention as well as strengthen their attitudes towards target stimuli in order for material to store itself within long-term memory.


Action is the fourth of five components of Aida Theory, a model used by marketers to understand and apply customer behavior. Action is the point at which the customer takes active measures to acquire your product or service. This may include making an online purchase, going to a store, or signing a contract for a service.

The underlying objective in Aida Theory is that action needs to be taken for the customer to achieve their goal and be satisfied with their experience. The other components of Aidma Theory include Awareness, Interest, Desire and Memory. To facilitate action from customers, you should ensure that all preceding steps are addressed during your marketing strategy.

For instance, if customers are not aware of your product or brand they won’t have any interest in it and thus no desire or memory associated with it will be created. Awareness can be accomplished through advertising campaigns in various media outlets as well as emphases on search engine optimization (SEO). Interest can be sparkled through compelling content such as news articles about your company or product reviews posted online by actual users; whereas desire can be achieved through offering discounts and promotion codes for your services or products. Note that the ultimate goal of Aidma Theory is to create customer memories so powerful that they will remember them – this includes both positive memories associated with good customer service experiences as well as more general recall ability when looking for similar services in the future market place.

Benefits of Aidma Theory

Aidma theory is an approach to understanding consumer behavior that focuses on how consumers perceive and process information. This theory is based on the idea that consumers are actively engaged in the evaluation of various marketing stimuli, including advertising, products, and services. The benefits of using this approach are numerous, including better understanding consumer needs and how to shape marketing strategies to meet those needs.

Let’s take a closer look at how Aidma theory can be beneficial to marketers:

Improved customer experience

Aidma Theory is an approach to strategic marketing that encompasses the five A’s of Aidma: awareness, image, desire, memory and action.

It states that there are five points of engagement with customers throughout their customer journey and that these should be considered when creating a marketing strategy.

The theory suggests that all five aspects should be present in order to effectively reach customers, build relationships and eventually increase sales. By focusing on these areas at each point along the customer journey, marketers can develop successful strategies and create a positive customer experience.

One of the key benefits of Aidma Theory is that it allows for improved customer experience by ensuring all five aspects are met along their journey to make them feel valued and appreciated. For example, having an effective awareness strategy helps customers become aware of a product or service being offered in the first place. When image is effectively managed through targeted campaigns or storytelling, customers will remember positive experiences associated with your product or service more easily and retain more information about it more quickly. Focusing on desire through individually tailored messaging encourages customers to learn more about your business and take action sooner rather than later. By then leveraging memory marketing techniques to keep them engaged throughout their entire journey and motivating them with effective call-to-action (CTA) messages to take action; this results in a memorable experience that translates into improved customer satisfaction levels.

Increased brand loyalty

Adopting Aidma theory can have significant benefits for companies looking to foster customer relationships and boost overall brand loyalty. As one of the early frameworks for understanding customer relationships, Aidma is a comprehensive model which considers all aspects of customer experience through Awareness, Interest, Desire, Memory and Action.

By actively employing Aidma, organizations are able to gain additional insight into how potential customers perceive their products and services. This knowledge can then be used to identify opportunities when marketing campaigns should be applied at each touchpoint along a customers’ journey – including pre-purchase conversations or post-sale service as required.

Tactically focused on increasing brand loyalty by nurturing long-term relationships with customers, Aidma Theory helps organizations target communication in the right way to ensure that they are building connections rather than just trying to make a sale. Additionally, using the framework helps maintain consumer data so that marketing messages are tailored appropriately to increase engagement with each customer segment across multiple channels and platforms.

Overall, by taking advantage of the insight generated from applying Aidma Theory strategically, organizations can measure key performance indicators such as repeat purchases or customer lifetime value in order to further optimize their interaction with customers and improve brand loyalty.

Increased sales

The Aidma Theory suggests that increased sales may result from focusing on multiple factors of the customer purchasing experience. The acronym stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, Memory, Action and was first proposed by marketing expert Dr. Maxwell Maltz in 1960.

  • Attention: Grabbing the customer’s attention with creative advertising and promotional techniques helps to draw customers in amongst their other choices.
  • Interest: Providing engaging content that highlights why your product or service is unique will help to encourage further action.
  • Desire: Positioning your product or service as something that will add value to a person’s life by outlining benefits associated with its purchase increases desire among potential customers.
  • Memory: Help potential customers remember your offer through powerful visuals and memorable phrases they can associate with it later on.
  • Action: Encourage customer action by implementing strategies such as discounts and limited-time offers while providing clear instructions on how they can obtain them if they decide to purchase.

By following the strategies outlined by Aidma Theory businesses may be able to increase sales and generate more revenue for their operations. It is essential for businesses to implement these core components in order to gain an advantage over competitors and increase their overall profitability. As a result of following this model businesses should also see improved customer satisfaction ratings as each step encourages customers to not only be aware of but also interested in purchasing a product or service from a certain business over others in the marketplace today.

Examples of Aidma Theory

Aidma theory is a marketing framework that puts emphasis on the interaction between the customer and the company. This theory is used to assess how customers perceive and process information before making a purchase decision. The five elements of the Aidma theory (awareness, involvement, desire, memory and action) work together to describe the customer’s journey with a brand or product.

In this article, we will look at examples of how the Aidma theory can be used in different marketing contexts:

Social media campaigns

The AIDA model can be applied to social media campaigns, as it explains the process of how a user will move through the stages required to take an action.

  • Awareness: The first step of any effective campaign is to get potential customers to become aware of your product or service. This involves creating specific and targeted messaging that encourages people to check out your brand; providing engaging content that will draw customers in and leave them wanting more.
  • Interest: Once people are aware of your brand, you must do your best to ignite their interest. Social media is a great way to do this with its ability to humanize brands by showcasing the values and benefits provided by using the product or service. Engaging visuals, videos, stories etc., along with captivating copywriting should pique customers’ curiosity about who you are as a brand and why they should choose you over others in the marketplace.
  • Desire: Once people have an understanding of who you are and what benefit they could receive from using your product/service, it’s time for them to experience desires around actually making the purchase decision—motivational factors such as promotions or special deals might be enough for some people at this point depending on their current financial needs. The key here is understanding what drives customer behaviors so that campaigns can be tailored accordingly so as to focus on motivating them towards making a purchase decision.
  • Action: Finally, no matter how exciting or beneficial your offer may be, if there’s no call-to-action it becomes useless—make sure that each campaign comes with a direct call-to-action such as “buy now”, “subscribe today” etc., so that potential purchasers know right away how they can get involved in what you’re offering next.

Online advertisements

In the context of Aidma theory, online advertisements refer to any ad that incorporates elements of Attention, Interest, Desire, Memory and Action (A-I-D-M-A). Online ads are one of the most powerful forms of advertising in today’s digital marketplace.

In terms of attention, online ads must strive to draw a person’s eye. This can be done through sharp visuals, a strong headline and an engaging copy that serves to capture the reader’s interest and make them click to learn more.

Interest is ensured by making sure the content or offer is relevant to their needs and interests. Engagement is essential in stirring up strong emotion and making sure they remember you when they come back later.

Desire is created when your visitor feels energized by your content—such as groundbreaking studies or new products—and looks forward to using your product. Additionally, being able to visualize how your product will integrate into their lifestyle will pique their desire for it even more.

Memory plays an important role in this theory because it gets visitors familiar with your brand message before they make a purchase decision; keep in mind that emotions stick in people’s memories longer than facts alone would. Did you have customers from past campaigns? Share their stories and experiences with potential buyers! This can create trust in potential customers – something we should always strive for when running online ads!

Finally, action must be taken if you want buyers to actually take advantage of the deals you offer them through advertisements; offer attractive incentives such as discounts or convenient checkout processes so that visitors are encouraged to follow through with a purchase. By optimizing each step according online AIDMA principles, any business should be able ensure maximum results from all its online campaigns!

Offline promotions

Offline promotions, also known as Faji or Out-of-Home (OOH) marketing, is one of the five major factors in AIDA (Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action, AIDMA). Offline promotional activities are conducted away from traditional computers and internet access points. AIDMA theory implies that offline promotion gives marketers the opportunity to reach out to customers without them performing any action such as initiating a goggle search or visiting a website.

There are many types of offline promotions including newspaper and magazine advertisements, radio and television commercials, direct mailers and billboards. Advertising on public transportation vehicles is an example of a classic way businesses take advantage of this marketing method. More recently, companies have employed augmented reality technology to increase interactivity with their customers during offline events like product launches.

Offline promotions can be used to attract people who are not actively using the internet by providing them with exposure to your organization’s messaging via channels they are frequenting. For example, a business could place ads on public transportation vehicles or billboards in neighborhoods popular with their target demographic group. Additionally, direct mailing campaigns may be utilized to reach targeted demographics in specific geographic areas that would otherwise be neglected if only employing digital marketing strategies.


Overall, the Aidma Theory is a useful framework for differentiating between different types of media and understanding how the implications of the messages these media deliver can affect the public. It provides a framework for understanding how different types of media can be used to influence public opinion and behavior.

This article has provided an overview of the Aidma Theory and explored its applications and implications for media studies.

Summary of Aidma Theory

Aidma Theory is a concept in marketing that provides a framework for companies to use in developing their marketing strategies. Aidma stands for Awareness, Interest, Desire, Memory, and Action and describes the process a consumer goes through when engaging with a product or service.

The goal of the theory is to create a successful product or service by building on these five steps. First, businesses want to build awareness of their brand and its offerings. This is best achieved through targeted advertising as well as word-of-mouth recommendations and publicity campaigns. Next, they want to create an interest in what they are offering by presenting information about their product or service in an attractive way that emphasizes its benefits over competitors’ offerings. The third step is creating desire in consumers – demonstrating how the product could fulfil their needs better than anything else available on the market right now. Memory comes fourth – businesses need to make sure that what they are offering sticks with consumers so that when it comes time for them to make a purchase decision, their product or service is at the forefront of people’s minds. Finally, companies need to prompt customers to take action – encouraging them either actively or passively on this path by providing incentives such as special discounts or freebies if they purchase from them rather than from competitors.

By understanding Aidma Theory and implementing it effectively into their marketing strategies, companies can increase sales and overall success.

Takeaways from Aidma Theory

Aidma Theory is a communication theory formulated by Dutch psychologist Willem Adriaan van der Hoop that states that communication is made up of four variables: Adjustment, Insight, Doubt, and Meaning. Each of these variables affects the other and together they form a continuous cycle that leads to the successful communication exchange.

This theory emphasises the fact that effective communicators must be aware of all four stages of a conversation and use them to improve their conversations by being open to feedback, sharing honest insights, overcoming doubts and objections, and providing clarity in meaning or purpose. This can assist in creating mutual understanding between parties involved in any type of conversation.

When applied to an aidma film cycle context it becomes clear how the theory emphasizes on building trust through offering advice or support rather than giving instructions or dictating how others should act. By doing so everyone involved will learn how to communicate better in order to reach their desired outcome. Additionally, this theory also stresses the importance of adjusting current conversational strategies if needed for further debates or problem-solving purposes as well as finding agreement for ideas whilst considering potential disagreements and negative consequences beforehand.

Therefore, takeaways from Aidma Theory are:

  1. Be aware of all four stages within a conversation;
  2. Trust building is essential;
  3. Offer advice rather than give instructions;
  4. Adjust current strategies if necessary;
  5. Find agreement whilst considering potential disagreements;
  6. Consider potential negative consequences before any action is taken; and
  7. Communicate effectively for mutual understanding between all parties involved.